Types of fireproof windows
Fireproof windows - a unique combination of window functions in the standard sense and the most powerful fire design. In addition to light transmission, additional environmental inspection, noise insulation and thermal insulation, they prevent the spread of fire.
Such a window can’t be opened, as it is deaf, to prevent the flow of oxygen, cut off the fire from nearby objects. Types of fireproof windows are classified depending on the level of fire resistance, which is determined by special technical regulations. The more time is spent on evacuation of people, rescue of property, arrival and work of fire service, the integrity of a fire-resistant design remains longer.
Principle of action
In the process of temperature exposure, the physical properties of fireproof glass change. At influence from 40 ºС transparency disappears, after 120 ºС polymeric layers expand, and the design becomes stone.
Under test conditions, after five minutes in the furnace, the temperature is 600 ° C, and at the temporary peak of testing (15 min, 30 min, 60 min) reaches 1100 ºC. Type 1 fireproof windows have the highest fire resistance.
Mechanical damage, cracks do not affect the properties during the standard time of fire resistance. During this period, the appearance of through holes and other violations of integrity is not allowed, so the windows are subject to mandatory testing and certification for fire safety.
Main places of installation: buildings with technologically complex and dangerous production, research organizations or other enterprises with special activities. Custom production for architectural monuments is possible to ensure the preservation of historical values.
Due to the unavailability of ventilation, this design is not used in buildings and general purpose premises, except for decorative design in multi-storey buildings. Exterior facing under a tree is possible. Selection of the limit of fire resistance for the object is carried out at the design stage, taking into account the rules.
Installation of visually similar windows in the room refers to translucent fire-resistant structures that meet other standards. Manufacturers mistakenly call such transparent separators "cold profile", by analogy with double-glazed windows without insulation. In fact, fireproof windows are mounted only on the facade.
Features of execution
Depending on the manufacturer, different design solutions are offered, but the classics include a skeleton made of a steel frame with a core, an aluminum profile and laminated glass. The total weight of the structure per meter of area is about 50 kg. The higher the type of fire resistance, the thicker the glass. In appearance, they resemble the usual glass block.
The use of flammable plastic or wood is not allowed, all materials must be fire resistant. The multi-layered glass is achieved due to the fire-resistant gel, which becomes harder at high temperatures. The fireproof sealant also expands under the action of fire, filling cavities in the profile.